Types of coffee
The espresso is the starting point for all espresso coffee - approx. 25 ml of espresso extracted in 25-30 seconds. A well-made espresso is characterised by a dark, golden crema. A further sign of a good espresso is that the surface tension of the crema should maintain one teaspoon of white sugar on its surface for 3-4 seconds before falling through.
A Ristretto, meaning ‘restricted’ in Italian, is normally only the first 15mls of extraction – it is therefore ‘restricted’ in the amount of coffee extracted and captures the sweetest, most intense characters of the coffee. The term ‘Double Ristretto’ is capturing 30 ml of espresso, made up from 2x 15 ml shots.
There are various ways to make a long black, but you should definitely not simply extract a normal espresso for double the length of time! I like to start with 10ml cold water, followed by boiling water (or approx. 95 degrees) to make up to around 2/3 of a cup – then pour a double ristretto on top! Not everyone uses a double espresso, but it gives the sweetest result (normally only the first 15ml of extraction).
Some enthusiasts find an espresso coffee too strong and concentrated; in the macchiato, milk is used to soften the edge of the espresso. Using a 90 ml glass, pour your espresso shot, and add a dash of textured milk. The term Macchiato means to mark, which in this case is what we’re doing to the coffee with the textured milk.
Named after the Cappuchin monks who apparently drank coffee to help them through their prayer vigils. The monks were recognisable because of their unique brown hood, which is brought to mind by the distinctive colour and texture on the top of a cappuccino coffee. One shot of espresso and 2 cm of textured milk. For a marbled effect, dust espresso with chocolate before pouring milk.
One of the most popular espresso-based drinks in Australia, the name literally comes from the meaning of the two words ‘café latte’. Caffe in Italian means ‘coffee’ and Latte means ‘milk’. Simply pour a shot of espresso into a 200-220 ml glass and add textured milk.
Developed as an Australian icon. For those who enjoy the strength of the cappuccino but not the foam that goes with it. Using a cup of around 160-180 mls capacity, pour in one shot of espresso and add steamed milk, including 1/2 cm of textured milk on top.